J Biomed 2017; 2:45-56. doi:10.7150/jbm.17612 This volume Cite
Helicobacter pylori infection: A recent approach to diagnosis and management
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Digestive Disease Institute, Tongji hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 389 Xincun road, Shanghai 200065, PR China
Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common infection worldwide and is associated with simple dyspepsia, heartburn and peptic ulcer diseases, most commonly leading to upper gastrointestinal bleeding and, ultimately, to the severe complication of gastric malignancy. Ninety percent of duodenal ulcers and 70% of gastric ulcers are associated with helicobacter pylori infections. Noninvasive methods, such as the urea breath test (UBT-13C or 14C) and fecal antigen test (FAT), have high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of H. pylori. However, 4-6 weeks of anti-secretary drugs (proton pump inhibitor) prior to testing can lead to false negative results. Invasive methods have benefits over noninvasive methods in the case of peptic ulcer diseases by taking samples for culture to determine their sensitivities and to stage disease progression to malignant transformation. Initially, standard triple regimen was the choice for treatment worldwide. However, high antibiotic resistances in various geographical regions have recently made standard quadruple therapy (bismuth-based) the preferred treatment. Recent studies have shown the promising benefits of 10-14 days of sequential and concomitant quadruple therapies as the first line option in high drug resistance areas, in cases of multidrug resistance or in prior treatment failure cases. Levofloxacin-based triple therapy, furazolidone-based regimens, and recent hybrid or rescue therapies are also beneficial towards the eradication of H. pylori infection as a second or third line therapy. Additionally, the use of probiotics and phytomedicines improve eradication rates when used with triple or quadruple therapies.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Diagnosis, Treatment, Antibiotic resistance